Blackpool is a seaside resort and unitary authority area in Lancashire, England, on Englands northwest coast. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, northwest of Preston, north of Liverpool, northwest of Bolton and northwest of Manchester. It had an estimated population of 142,065 at the 2011 Census.
Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashires Hundred of Amounderness, and remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast in the summer to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpools sandy beach were able to use a new private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, and from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851. St Johns Church in Blackpool was consecrated in 1821.
Blackpool rose to prominence as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England. The railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881, Blackpool was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, trams, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. By 1951 it had grown to 147,000.
Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, affected Blackpools status as a leading resort in the late 20th century. Nevertheless, Blackpools urban fabric and economy remains relatively undiversified, and firmly rooted in the tourism sector, and the boroughs seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year. In addition to its sandy beaches, Blackpools major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, and the UKs only surviving first-generation tramway.
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